Physics of Solids I

An irridescent synthetic bismuth crystal.

A synthetic bismuth crystal. The bottom front edge has a length of about 3.5cm. The irridescent color is created due to interference effects in a thin oxide layer, which forms when the hot crystal is pulled out of the bismuth melt. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia user Dschwen.)


MIT Course Number


As Taught In

Fall 2006



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Course Description

This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts of the quantum theory of solids.

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Xiao-Gang Wen. 8.231 Physics of Solids I, Fall 2006. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), (Accessed). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

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