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The Ocean as a Chemical System

Garrels, R., and M. Thompson. "A Chemical Model for Seawater at 25 C and One Atmosphere Total Pressure." American Journal of Science 260 (1962): 57-66.

Broecker, W. S. "A Kinetic Model for the Chemical Composition of Sea Water." Quaternary Research 1, no. 2: 188-207.

Sillen, L. G. "The Ocean as A Chemical System." Science 156 (1967): 1189-1196.

McDuff, R. E., and F. M. Morel. "The Geochemical Control of Seawater (Sillen revisited)." Environmental Science and Technology 24, no. 10: 1182-1186.

Hydrothermal Fluxes

Drever, J. I. "The Magnesium Problem." In The Sea. Vol. 5, Marine Chemistry. Edited by E. Goldberg. New York, NY: Wiley Interscience, 1974.

Edmond, J. M., et al. "Ridge Crest Hydrothermal Activity and The Balances of the Major and Minor Elements in The Ocean: The Galapagos Data". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 46 (1979): 1-18.

Mottl, M. J., and C. G. Wheat. "Hydrothermal Circulation Through Mid-ocean Ridge Flanks: Fluxes of Heat and Magnesium." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, no. 10: 2225-2237.

Von Damm, K. L., et al. "Evolution of East Pacific Rise Hydrothermal Vent Fluids Following a Volcanic Eruption." Nature 375 (1995): 47-50.

Michalopoulos, P., and R. C. Aller. "Rapid Clay Mineral Formation in Amazon Delta Sediments: Reverse Weathering and Oceanic Elemental Cycles." Science 270 (1995): 614-617.

3 Air-Sea Gas Exchange

Broecker, W. S., et al. "Isotopic Versus Micrometeorologic Ocean CO2 Fluxes: A Serious Conflict". Journal of Geophysical Research 91, no. C9: 517-527.

Wanninkhof, R., and W. R. McGillis. "A Cubic Relationship Between Air-sea CO2 Exchange and Wind Speed". Geophysical Research Letters26, no. 13: 1889-1892.

Air-Sea Gas Exchange (cont.)

Buy at Amazon Liss, P. S., and L. Merlivat. "Air-sea Gas Exchange Rates: Introduction and Synthesis." In The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling.Edited by P. Buat-Menard. Proc. of ASI, Springer; 1 edition, 1986, pp. 113-127 and 549. ISBN: 9789027723185 pp. 113-127.

McGillis, W. R., J. B. Edson, J. E. Hare, and C. W. Fairall. "Direct Covariance Air-sea CO2 Fluxes." Journal of Geophysical Research 106, no. C8: 16729-16745.

Smith, S. D., and E. P. Jones. "Evidence for Wind-pumping of Air-sea Gas Exchange Based on Direct Measurements of CO2 Fluxes." Journal of Geophysical Research 90, no. C1: 869-875.

Radiocarbon and Carbon Fluxes

Stuiver, M., P. D. Quay, and H. G. Ostlund. "Abyssal Water Carbon-14 Distribution and the Age of the World Oceans." Science 219 (1983): 849-851.

Siegenthaler, U., and J. L. Sarmiento. "Atmospheric Carbon dioxide and the Ocean." Nature 365 (1993): 119.

Craig, H. Abyssal. "Carbon and Radiocarbon in the Pacific." Journal of Geophysical research 74, no. 23: 5491-5506.

Revelle, R., and H. E. Suess. "Carbon dioxide Exchange Between Atmosphere and Ocean and the Question of an Increase of Atmospheric CO2 During the Past Decades." Tellus 9 (1957): 18-27.

Mircrobial Loop, Redfield Ratio, and Primary Production

Azam, F., et al. "The Ecological Role of Water-column Microbes in the Sea." Marine Ecology 10 (1983): 257-263.

Redfield, A. C., B. H. Ketchum, and F. A. Richards. "The Influence of Organisms on the Composition of Sea-water." In The Sea. Vol. 2, The Composition of Seawater. Edited by M. N. Hill. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 26-77.

Dugdale, R. C., and J. J. Goering. "Uptake of New and Regenerated Forms of Nitrogen in Primary Productivity." Limnology and Oceanography 12, no. 2: 196-206.

Jenkins, W. J., and J. C. Goldman. "Seasonal Oxygen Cycling and Primary Production in the Sargasso Sea." Journal of Marine Research 43 (1985): 465-491.

Vertical Fluxes

Coale, K. H., and K. W. Bruland. "Oceanic Stratified Euphotic Zone as Elucidated by 234Th:238U Disequilibria." Limnology and Oceanography 32, no. 1: 189-200.

Eppley, R. W., and B. J. Peterson. "Particulate Organic Matter Flux and Planktonic New Production in The Deep Ocean." Nature 282 (1979): 677-680.

Martin, J. H., et al. "VERTEX:Carbon Cycling in the Northeast Pacific." Deep-Sea Research 34, no. 2: 267-285.

McCave, I. N. "Vertical Flux of Particles in the Ocean." Deep-Sea Research 22 (1975): 491-502.

Nitrogen Cycle

Falkowski, P. G. "Evolution of the Nitrogen Cycle and its Influence on The Biological Sequestration of CO2 in the Ocean." Nature 387 (1997): 272-275.

Codispoti, L. A., et al. "The Oceanic Fixed Nitrogen and Nitrous oxide Budgets: Moving Targets as we Enter the Anthropocene?" Scientia Marina 65 (Suppl. 2): 85-105.

Gruber, N., and J. L. Sarmiento. "Global Patterns of Marine Nitrogen Fixation and Denitrification." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11, no. 2: 235-266.

Codispoti, L. A., and J. P. Christensen. "Nitrification, Denitrification and Nitrous oxide Cycling in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean." Marine Chemistry 16 (1985): 277-300.

Devol, A. H. "Direct Measurement of Nitrogen Gas Fluxes from Continental Shelf Sediments." Nature 349 (1991): 319-321.

Sediment Geochemistry

Emerson, S., and M. Bender. "Carbon Fluxes at the Sediment Water Interface of the Deep-sea: Calcium carbonate Preservation." Journal of Marine Research 39, no. 1: 139-161.

Westrich, J. T., and R. A. Berner. "The Role of Sedimentary Organic Matter in Bacterial Sulfate Reduction: The G Model Tested." Limnology and Oceanography 29, no. 2: 236-249.

Sediment Geochemistry (cont.)
Froelich, P. N., et al. "Early Oxidation of Organic matter in pelagic Sediments of the Eastern Equitorial Atlantic: Suboxic Diagenesis." Geochemica and Cosmochemica Acto 43 (1979): 1075-1080.
Oceans and Climate

Sigman, D. M., and E. A. Boyle. "Glacial/Interglacial Variations in Atmospheric Carbon dioxide." Nature 407 (2000): 859-869.

Jouzel, J., et al. "Vostok Ice Core: A continuous Isotope Temperature Record over the last Climatic Cycle (160,000 years)." Nature 329 (1987): 403-408.

Hays, J. D., J. Imbrie, and N. J. Shackleton. "Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages." Science 194 (1976): 1121-1132.

Broecker, W. S., and G. H. Denton. "The Role of Ocean-Atmosphere Reorganizations in Glacial Cycles." Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta 53, no. 10: 2465-2501.

Riverine Inputs

Sholkovitz, E. R. "Flocculation of Dissolved Organic and Inorganic Matter During the Mixing of River Water and Seawater." Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta 40 (1976): 831-845.

Keil, R. G., et al. "Loss of Organic Matter from Riverine Particles in Deltas." Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta 61, no. 7: 1507-1511.

Boyle, E. A., J. M. Edmond, and E. R. Sholkovitz. "The Mechanism of Iron Removal in Estuaries." Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta 41 (1977): 1313-1324.

Krauskoff, K. B. "Factors Controlling the Concentrations of Thirteen Rare Metals in Sea-water." Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta 9 (1956): 1-32.

Long Term Global Nutrient Cycling

Van Cappellen, P., and E. D. Ingall. "Redox Stabilization of the Atmosphere and Oceans by Phosphorus-Limited Marine Productivity." Science 271 (1996): 493-496.

Canfield, D. E., K. S. Habicht, and B. Thamdrup. "The Archean Sulfur Cycle and The Early History of Atmosphereic Oxygen." Science 288 (2000): 658-661.

Des Marais, D. J., H. Strauss, R. E. Summons, and J. M. Hayes. "Carbon Isotope Evidence for the Stepwise Oxidation of the Protozoic Environment." Nature 359 (1992): 605-609.

Garrels, R. M., and E. A. Perry. "Cycling of Carbon, Sulfur, and Oxygen through Geologic Time." In The Sea. Edited by E. Goldberg. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1974, pp. 303-336.