The readings listed below are the foundation of this course. Where available, journal article abstracts from PubMed (an online database providing access to citations from biomedical literature) are included.


Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Human Ethology. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989.

Supplementary Readings For Class Reports, Discussion And Term Papers

Additional General Texts and Treatises

Darwin, C. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, Phoenix Books, 1965, orig. 1872.

Lorenz, K. Z. The Foundations of Ethology. N.Y.: Springer, 1981.

Gallistel, C. R. The Organization of Action: A New Synthesis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980.

Wickler, W. The Sexual Code: The Social Behavior of Animals and Men. Translated by F. Garvie. Garden City: Doubleday, Anchor Press, 1973.

Wilson, E. O. Sociobiology, the Abridged Edition. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1980.

Maxwell, M., ed. The Sociobiological Imagination. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.

Barash, D. P. Sociobiology and Behavior. 2nd ed. N.Y.: Elsevier, 1982.

Cockburn, A. An Introduction to Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd., 1991.

Krebs, J. R., and N. B. Davies, eds. Behavioural Ecology, an Evolutionary Approach. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd., 1997.

Brown, L., and J. F. Downhower. Analyses in Behavioral Ecology: A Manual for Lab and Field. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Assoc., 1988.

Alcock, J. Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach. 5th ed. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Assoc., 1993.

Drickamer, L. C., S. H. Vessey, and D. Meikle. Animal Behavior: Mechanisms, Ecology and Evolution. 3rd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1996.

Dewsbury, D. A., ed. Contemporary Issues in Comparative Psychology. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Assoc., 1989.

Gallistel, C. R. The Organization of Learning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (Bradford Book), 1990.

Roitblat, H. L. Introduction to Comparative Cognition. N.Y.: W. H. Freeman & Co., 1987.

Ristau, C. A., and P. Marler, eds. Cognitive Ethology: The Minds of Other Animals. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990.

Griffin, D. R. Animal Thinking. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984.

Gallistel, C. R., ed. Animal Cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992. (From Cognition 37, 1-2 (1990)).

Hediger, H. Wild Animals in Captivity. N.Y.: Dover, 1964.

———. Man and Animal in the Zoo. Translated by G. Vevers and W. Reade. N.Y.: Delacorte Press, 1969.

Morris, Desmond. Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior. (LJM)

Marsh, Peter. Eye to Eye: How People Interact. 1988. (HM132.E98.1988)

Morris, Desmond, et al. Gestures. 1979. (BF 591.647 1979).

Davitz. The Communication of Emotional Meaning. 1964. (BF 591.B36).

Morris, Desmond. Babywatching. 1991. (LJM)

Omark, Donald F., F. Strayer, and Daniel G. Freedman. Dominance Relation: An Ethological View of Human Conflict and Social Interaction. (HM106 .D65)

Archer, John. Ethology and Human Development. (BF713 .A8 1992)

Hinde, Robert A. Individuals, Relationships & Culture: Links Between Ethology and the Social Sciences. (HM106 .H55 1987)

The Human Animal. Multimedia Entertainment. (MEDIA VIDEO BF199 .H85 1991) [Video recording]

Konner, M. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. N.Y.: Harper & Row (Harper Colophon Books), 1982, 1990.

Additional, More Specialized Books and Articles

Advances in the Study of Behavior. Vol. 1-18 (1965-1988), N.Y.: Academic Press.

Hrdy, S. B. The Langurs of Abu: Female and Male Strategies of Reproduction. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1977.

Strum, S. C. Almost Human: A Journey into the World of Baboons. N.Y.: W.W. Norton, 1987.

Byrne, R. W., and A. Whiten. Machiavellian Intelligence: Social Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.

Cheney, D. L., and R. M. Seyfarth. How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1990.

Fossey, D. Gorillas in the Mist. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Goodall, J. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1986.

Wrangham, R. W., W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal, and P. G. Heltne, eds. Chimpanzee Cultures. Harvard Univ. Press, 1994.

Moore, Jim. "Female Transfer in Primates." International Journal of Primatology 5, 6 (1984): 537-589.

Crawford, Charles, and Dennis L. Krebs. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. (BF57 .H36 1998)

Bekoff, Marc. "Cognitive Ethology and the Explanation of Nonhuman Animal Behavior." 1995.

———. "Cognitive Ethology, Vigilance, Information Gathering, and Representation: Who Might Know What and Why? " Behavioral Processes 35 (1996): 225-237.

Bekoff, M., and C. Allen. "Cognitive Ethology: Slayers, Skeptics, and Proponents." In Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals: The Emperor's New Clothes? Albany, New York: SUNY Press, 1997, pp. 313-334.

Bekoff, Marc. "Cognitive Ethology: The Comparative Study of Animal Minds." In Blackwell Companion to Cognitive Science. Blackwell Publishers, 1995.

Bekoff, Marc. "Deep Ethology." In Intimate Relationships, Embracing the Natural World.Kosmos, (1997).

Bekoff, Marc, and Colin Allen. "Intentional Communication and Social Play: How and Why Animals Negotiate and Agree to Play." In Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Bekoff, Marc. "Playing with Play What Can We Learn About Cognition, Negotiation, and Evolution?." In The Evolution of Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Dittrich, Winand. "Is the Monkeys' World Scientifically Impenetrable?" Behavioral and Brain Sciences15 (1992): 152.

Oliphant, Michael. "Rethinking the Language Bottleneck: Why don't Animals Learn to Communicate?" 1988.

Suddendorf, Thomas. "Simpler for Evolution: Secondary Representation in Apes, Children, and Ancestors." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1998): 131.

Moore, Jim. "Sociobiology and Incest Avoidance: A Critical Look at a Critical Review." American Anthropologist 94 (1992): 929-932

Moore, Jim. "The Evolution of Reciprocal Sharing." Ethology and Sociobiology 5 (1984): 5-14.


Cross-Cultural Differences or Their Absences

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Human Ethology. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989.

Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension. 1966. (BF469.H3)

———. The Silent Language. 1981. (HM258.H245 1990)

"The Translator." Science. July/Aug. 1985. (SJU Holdings)

Stewart, Edward C. American Cultural Patterns: A Cross-cultural Perspective. (E169.1 .S836 1991)

Philips, Susan Urmston. The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. (E97.65.O7 P45 1983)

General Non-Verbal Communication

Lewis, Michael. The Effect of the Infant on its Caregiver. Edited by Michael Lewis and Leonard A. Rosenblum. New York: Wiley, 1974. SJU (HQ774 .L45).

Weitz, Shirley, ed. Nonverbal Communication. 1979. (BF 637.C45 W38 1979).

Siegman, Aron W., and Fieldstein, eds. Nonverbal Behavior and Communication. 1978. (BF 637.C43 N62).

Argyle, Michael. Bodily Communication. 1988. (BF 637.C45 A73 1988).

Kendon, Adam, Harris, and Key. Organization of Behavior in Face-to-Face Interaction. 1975. (BF 637.C45 O73).

Hinde, R. A., ed. Nonverbal Communication. 1972. (BF 637.C45 N65).

Knapp, Mark R. Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. (BF 637.C45 K57 1978).

Duncan, Starkey Jr., and Fiske. Face-to-Face Interaction: Research Methods, and Theory. 1977. (BF 637.C45 D86).

Szasz, Suzanne. The Body Language of Children. (BF723.C57 S92 1978)

Davis, Martha. Body Movement and Nonverbal Communication: An Annotated Bibliography. 1971-1981. (BF295 .Z943 1982)

Feldman, Robert, ed. Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Children. N.Y.: Springer-Verlag. 1982. (BF723.C57 D47 1982)

Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: The Do's and Taboos of Body Language around the World. (BF637.N66 A88 1998)

Knapp, Mark L., and R. Gerald. Miller Handbook of Interpersonal Communication. (BF637.C45 H287 1994)

Portch, Stephen R. Literature's Silent Language: Nonverbal Communication. (PS374.N65 P67 1985)

Spiegel, John Paul. Messages of the Body. (BF637.C45 S66)

Moroni, Giancarlo. My Hands Held Out to You: The Use of Body and Hands in Prayer. (BV215 .M6713 1992)

Eisenberg, Abne M. Nonverbal Communication. (P90 .E35)

Ruesch, Jurgen. Nonverbal Communication; Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relation. (P90 .R8 1966)

Key, Mary Ritchie. Nonverbal Communication: A Research Guide & Bibliography. (REFERENCE P99.5 .K4)

Cooper, Ken. Nonverbal Communication for Business Success. (HF5386 .C78)

Papousek, Hanus, and Uwe Jurgens, Mechthild Papousek. Nonverbal Vocal Communication: Comparative and Developmental Approaches. (BF723.C57 N66 1992)

Segerstrale, Ullica, and Peter Molnar. Nonverbal Communication: Where Nature Meets Culture. (SJU BF637.N66 N66 1997)

Hoggart, Richard. On Culture and Communication. (P90 .H65 1972)

Key, Mary Ritchie. Paralanguage and Kinesics: (Nonverbal Communication), with a Bibliography. (BF637.C45 K48)

Jones, Stanley E. The Right Touch: Understanding and Using the Language of Physical Contact. (BF275 .J66 1994)

Rosenthal, Robert, et al. Sensitivity to Nonverbal Communication: The PONS Test. (BF637.C45 S43)

La Russo, Dominic A. The Shadows of Communication: Nonverbal Dimensions. (P99.5 .L3)

Leathers, Dale G. Successful Nonverbal Communication: Principles and Applications. (BF637.C45 L435 1986)

Josipovici, Gabriel. Touch. (P99.5 .J67 1996)

Szasz, Suzanne. The Unspoken Language of Children. (BF723.C57 S92 1980)

A World of Gestures: Culture & Nonverbal Communication. Created & produced by Dane Archer. Directed by Jon Silver. (VIDEOTAPE CASSETTE P117 .W67 1991) [Video recording]

Sebeok, Thomas A., and Alfred S. Hayes. Mary Catherine Bateson. Approaches to Semiotics: Cultural Anthropology, Education, Linguistics, Psychiatry, Psychology; Transactions. Indiana University Conference on Paralinguistics and Kinesics, 1962. (P87 .I5 1972)

Nespoulous, Jean-Luc, Paul Perron, and Andre Roch Lecours. The Biological Foundations of Gestures: Motor and Semiotic Aspects. (QP360 .B563 1986)

Fast, Julius. Body language. (BF637.C45 F35)

Scheflen, Albert E. Body Language and the Social Order: Communication as Behavioral Control. (BF45.C45 S34 1973)

Birdwhistell, Ray L. 1918- Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication. (BF637.C45 B57)

Spiegel, John Paul. Messages of the Body. (BF637.C45 S66)

Key, Mary Ritchie. Paralanguage and Kinesics: (Nonverbal Communication), with a Bibliography. (BF637.C45 K48)

Enquist, Magnus, and Stefano Ghirlanda. "The Secrets of Faces." In Nature. 1998, pp. 394.

Ruesch, Jurgen. Nonverbal Communication; Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations. 1909. (400 R84 n)


Communication by Voice and Action. Presented by Centron Films. (MEDIA VIDEO P99.5 .C67) [Video recording]

The Human Voice: Exploring Vocal Paralanguage. Created and Produced by Dane Archer. Directed and Produced by Jon Silver. (MEDIA VIDEO P90 .H85 1993) [Video recording]

Cooper, Morton. Change Your Voice, Change Your Life. 1984. (PN 4162.C65)

Hanley, Theodore, and Thurman. Developing Vocal Skills. 1970. (PN 4162.H33)

Bronstein, and Jacoby. Your Speech and Voice. 1967. (PN 4121.B722)

Pittam, J., and K. R. Scherer. "Vocal Expression and Communication of Emotion." In Handbook of Emotions. Edited by Michael Lewis and Jeannette M. Haviland. New York: Guilford Press, c1993. (CSB BF561 .H35 1993)

Scherer, K. R. "Vocal Affect Signaling: A Comparative Approach." In Advances in the Study of Behavior. Vol. 15. Pp. 189-244. (SJU QL750 .A38)

Emotion and Facial Expression

Russell, James. The Psychology of Facial Expressions. 1997. (BF592.F33 P78 1997)

Buck, Ross. The Communication of Emotion. (BF531 .B78 1984)

The Human Face: Emotions, Identities and Masks. Created and Produced by Dane Archer. (MEDIA VIDEO BF851 .H85 1996) [Video recording]

Plutchik, Robert. Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis. 1980. (LJM)

Scherer, Klaus R. Facets of Emotion. 1988. (BF531.F33 1988)

Landau, Terry. About Faces. 1989. (GN64.L26.1989)

Matthews, Michael L. "Discrimination of Identikit Construction of Faces. Evidence for a Dual Processing Strategy." Perception and Psychophysics 23, 2 (1978): 153-161. (SJU)

Clark, Margret S. Emotion. (BF511 .C53 1992)

Malatesta, Carol Z. "The Development of Emotion Expression During the First Two Years of Life," with Commentary by Alan Fogel and Mark Reimers, Gail Zivin, and a Reply by the Authors. (LB1103 .S6 v.54 no.1-2)

Ekman, Paul. Emotion in the Human Face: Guide-lines for Research and an Itegration of Findings. (BF561 .E45 1972)

Anderson, Peter A., and Laura K. Guerrero. Handbook of Communication and Emotion: Research, Theory, Applications, and Contexts. (BF637.C45 H283 1998)

Davitz, Joel Robert. The Language of Emotion.(BF591 .D364)

Sex Differences

Mealey, L. Sex Differences: Development and Evolutionary Strategies. Academic Press, 2000.

Campbell, Anne. The Opposite Sex. 1989. (BF692.2.O77 1989)

Henley, Nancy. Body Politics: Power, Sex, and Nonverbal Communication. (BF637.C45 H44)

McGee, Mark G. Human Spatial Abilities: Sources of Sex Differences. (BF469 .M3)

Ghesuiere, J., R. D. Martin, and F. Newcom. Human Sexual Dimorphism. (QP251 H846 1985)

The Human Sexes. Partridge Films; The Learning Channel, a Discovery Network. (VIDEOTAPE CASSETTE HQ1075 .M68 1997) [Video recording]

Geary, David C. Male, Female: The Evolution of Human Sex Differences. (QP81.5 .G43 1998)

Dennen, J. M. G. van der. The Nature of the Sexes: The Sociobiology of Sex Differences and the "Battle of the Sexes". (BF692.2 .N38 1992)

Hall, Judith A. Nonverbal Sex Differences: Communication Accuracy and Expressive Style. (BF637.C45 H28 1984)

Mayo, Clara, and Nancy M. Henley. Gender and Nonverbal Behavior. (BF637.C45 G45)

Tannen, Deborah. Gender and Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (CSB P120.S48 T36 1994)

———. Talking from 9 To 5: How Women's and Men's Conversational Styles Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work. New York: W. Morrow, c1994. (CSB HF5718 .T36 1994)

———. You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Morrow, c1990. (CSB & SJU HQ734 .T24 1990)

Moore, Jim. "Book Review of The Egalitarians -- Human and Chimpanzee_ by Margaret Power." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88 (1992): 259-262.

Bekoff, Marc. "Deep Ethology." In Intimate Relationships, Embracing the Natural World. Kosmos, (1997).


Muscarella, Frank, Bernhard Fink, Karl Grammer, and Michael Kirk-Smith. "Homosexual Orientation in Males: Evolutionary and Ethological Aspects." Neiroendocrinology Letters 22,6 (2001): 393-400.

PubMed abstract: Evolutionary theory proposes that adaptive traits are reproduced more successfully than maladaptive traits. Accordingly, natural selection should favor heterosexuality as it facilitates reproduction and the propagation of genes. However, the question becomes, what has maintained homosexuality in a small but consistent percentage of the human population? Research into the evolutionary and hormonal factors associated with a homosexual orientation have yielded provocative but inconsistent results. It also suggests that human sexual orientation, and in particular homosexual orientation, is too complex to be described by one simple model or a single research discipline. The current paper treads a new path and emphasizes an integrative approach for the understanding of homosexuality. The authors examine the combined effects of evolutionary factors and neurohormonal processes on the development of a homosexual orientation. It is suggested that research into the topic could benefit from an examination of and change in some of the assumptions upon which much past research has been based.

Beaugrand, Jacques P. Modèles de dominance et théorie de l'évolution. In Darwin Après Darwin, Québec: PUQ. Edited by Joseph Lévy and Henri É. Cohen. 1983, pp. 110-137. Presses de l'Université du Québec (PUQ).

Snyder, Peter J., James D. Weinrich, and Richard C. Pillard. "Personality and Lipid Level Differences Associated with Homosexual and Bisexual Identity in Men." Archives of Sexual Behavior 23 (1994): 433-451.

PubMed abstract: Self-identified homosexual (n = 30), bisexual (n = 29), and heterosexual (n = 31) men were compared on measures of gender-typical behavior, sex role, ego strength, and lipid levels. Homosexual men differed significantly from the heterosexual men on the gender-typical behavior and feminine sex-role measure (both in adulthood and in childhood), and several trends and significant differences were found on the biochemical measures of lipid levels (especially when 7 obese men were removed from the analyses). As a rule, the bisexual men were different from the heterosexual men on the above measures, but were indistinguishable from the homosexual men. Bisexuals differed from both of the other two groups, however, by scoring lower on the ego strength scale and by reporting themselves to be more often troubled, lonely, and depressed. We caution that the lipid analyses were made on single blood samples and require an extended replication; however, we report the data because of their possible theoretical interest and because they replicate work of 20 years ago.


Stoddart, Micahel P. The Scented Ape. 1990. (QP458.S77 1990)

Corbin, Alan. The Foul and the Fragrant. 1986. (GT 2847.C6713 1986)

Engen, Trygg. Odor Sensation and Memory. 1991. (QP 458.E52 1991)

Shorey, Harry. Animal Communication by Pheromones. (QL776 .S54)

Short, R. V., and E. Balaban. The Differences Between the Sexes. (QP81.5 .D54 1994)

Stoddart, David Michael. Mammalian Odours and Pheromones. (QL739.2 .S8)

Kohl, James V., Michaela Atzmueller, Bernhard Fink, and Karl Grammer. "Human Pheromones: Integrating Neuroendocrinology and Ethology." Neuroendocrinology Letters 22, 5 (2001): 309-321.

PubMed abstract: The effect of sensory input on hormones is essential to any explanation of mammalian behavior, including aspects of physical attraction. The chemical signals we send have direct and developmental effects on hormone levels in other people. Since we don t know either if, or how, visual cues might have direct and developmental effects on hormone levels in other people, the biological basis for the development of visually perceived human physical attraction is currently somewhat questionable. In contrast, the biological basis for the development of physical attraction based on chemical signals is well detailed.


Ewing. Dress and Undress. 1978. (GT 2073.E89)

Kohler, Carl. A History of Costume. 1963. (GT 510.K6)

Mansfield, Alan. Ceremonial Costume. 1980. (GT 1755.G7 M36)

Ryan, Mary. Clothing: A Study In Human Behavior. 1966. (GT 521.R9)

Hope, Thomas. Costumes of the Greeks. 1962. (GT 595.H6)

Latzke, Alpha, and Helen Hostetter. The Wide World of Clothing. 1968. (TT 507 L32)

Boehn, Max V. Ornaments. 1970. (GT 2050 B613)

Hartley, A. Medieval Costume and Life. 1931. (GT 732.H3)

Roach, Mary Ellen, and Joanne Eicher. The Visible Self: Perspectives on Dress. 1973. (GT 521 R57)

Horn, Marilyn. The Second Skin. 1968. (GT 521 H67)

DeMarly, Diana. Fashion for Men. 1985. (GT 1710.D3)

Bell, Quentin. On Human Finery. 1976. (GT 521.B4)

Warwick, Pitz, and Wychoff. Early American Dress. 1965. (GT 605.H64 v.2)

Hanson, H. H. Costumes and Styles. 1956. (GT 510.H33)

O'Hara, Georgina. The Encyclopedia of Fashion. 1986. (GT 507.O53)

Laver, James. Dress. 1966. (GT 580.L28)

Gorsline, Douglas. What People Wore. 1974. (GT 513.G6)

Wilcox, R. Turner. The Mode in Costume. 1958. (GT 510.W55)

Peacock, John. Costume: 1066-1966. 1986. (GT 730.P43)

Squire, Geoffrey. Dress in Society: 1560-1970. 1974. (GT 720.S6)

Scott, Steven. Why Do They Dress That Way? 1986. (BX 4950.S35)

Davis, Fred. Fashion, Culture, and Identity. 1992. (GT 525.D38 1992)

Brown, Percy Clement. (1886). Art in Dress. 1922. (TT515 .B88 1993)

Tarlo, Emma. Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India. (GT1460 .T37 1996)

Hotchkiss, Valerie R. Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross Dressing in Medieval Europe. 1960. (HQ77 .H67 1996)

Hall, Lee. Common Threads: A Parade of American Clothing. (GT605 .H35 1992)

Roche, Daniel. The Culture of Clothing: Dress and Fashion in the "Ancien Regime". (GT857 .R6313 1994)

Hines, Dick. Dressing for Worship: A Fresh Look at What Christians Wear in Church. (BX5141.A1 G75 no.138)

Boscagli, Maurizia. Eye on the Flesh: Fashions of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century. (GT720 .B67 1996)

Perrot, Philippe. Fashioning the Bourgeoisie: A History of Clothing in the Nineteenth Century. (GT871 .P3913 1994)

Kirkham, Pat. The Gendered Objects. (BF692.2 G466 1996)

Chenoune, Farid. A History of Men's Fashion. (GT1710 .C44 1993)

"Manual on school Uniforms." (GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT ED 1.2:97031091) (Electronic Resource)

Harvey, John Robert. Men in Black. (PR149.C67 H37 1995)

Peacock, John. Men's Fashion: The Complete Sourcebook. 1943. (GT1710 .P43 1996)

Buzzaccarini, Vittoria de. Men's Coats. (OVERSIZE GT2079 .B89 1994)

Costantino, Maria. Men's Fashion in the Twentieth Century: From Frock Coats to Intelligent Fibres. (GT1710 .C67 1997)

Police Body Armor Standards and Testing. Washington, D.C.: Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment. (GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT Y 3.T 22/2:2 P 75/2/v.1-)

Police Body Armor: Consumer Product List. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. (GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT J 28.2:P 75/13)

Arthur, Linda B. Religion, Dress, and the Body. (GT525 .R44 1999)

Hollander, Anne. Sex and Suits. (GT525 .H65 1994)

Molloy, John T. The Woman's Dress for Success Book. 1977. (TX 340.M59)

Furstenberg, Egon von. The Power Look. 1978. (TT 507.V65)

Thourlby, William. You Are What You Wear. 1978. (TT 507.T47)

Wallach, Janet. Looks That Work. 1986. (TT 507.W2169 1986)

Hix, Charles. Dressing Right. 1978. (TT 618.H58)

Machine Interfaces

Argyle, M., and M. Cook. Gaze and Mutual Gaze. England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Argyle, M., L. Lefebvre, and M. Cook. "The Meaning of Five Patterns of Gaze." European Journal of Social Psychology 4, 2 (1974): 125-136.

Bolt, R. A. "Conversing With Computers." Technology Review, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, Feb./Mar. 1985.

———. "The Integrated Multimodal Interface." The Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (Japan) J79-D, 11 (Nov. 1987): 2017-2025.

Effron, D. Gesture, Race and Culture. The Hague: Mouton, 1941/1972.

Ekman, P. "About Brows: Emotional and Conversational Signals." In Human Ethology. Edited by M. Von Cranach, K. Foppa, W. Lepenies and D. Ploog. 1979, pp. 169-249.

Ekman, P., and W. Friesen. "The Repertoire of Non-Verbal Behavior: Categories, Origins, Usage, and Coding." Semiotica 1 (1969): 49-98.

Goodwin, C. "Gestures as a Resource for the Organization of Mutual Orientation." Semiotica 62, 1/2 (1986): 29-49.

———. Conversational Organization: Interaction between Speakers and Hearers. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press, 1981.

Kahneman, D. Attention and Effort. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973.

Kleinke, C. "Gaze and Eye Contact: A Research Review." Psychological Bulletin 100, 1 (1986): 78-100.

Koons, D. B., C. J. Sparrell, and K. R. Thórisson. "Integrating Simultaneous Input from Speech, Gaze and Hand Gestures." Chap. 11 in Intelligent Multi-Media Interfaces. Edited by M. T. Maybury. Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press/MIT Press, 1993, pp. 252-276.

Laurel, B. "Interface Agents: Metaphors with Character." In The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. Edited by B. Laurel. 1990, pp. 355-365.

Lord, C., and M. M. Haith. "The Perception of Eye Contact." Perception & Psychophysics 16, 3 (1974): 413-16. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

McNeill, D. Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Nespolous, J-L & Lecours, A. R. (1986).

Pierrehumbert, J., and J. Hirschberg. "The Meaning of Intonational Contours in the Interpretation of Discourse." In Intentions in Communication. Edited by P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan and M. E. Pollack. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.

Rimé, B., and L. Schiaratura. "Gesture and Speech." In Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior. Edited by R. S. Feldman and B. Rimé. New York Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1991, pp. 239-281.

Computer Simulations of Behavior

Maes, P., ed. Designing Autonomous Agents: Theory and Practice from Biology to Engineering and Back. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Elsevier, 1990.

Mayer, J. A., and S. Wilson, eds. From Animals to Animats. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

Nii, P. "Blackboard Systems." In The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Edited by A. Barr, P. R. Cohen and E. A. Feigenbaum. Vol. 4, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1989, pp. 1-74.

Selfridge, O. G. "Pandemonium: A Paradigm for learning." In Proceedings of the Symposium on the Mechanization of Thought Processes. 1959, pp. 511-529.

Computational learning theory and natural learning systems. Editors: Hanson SJ, Drastal GA, Rivest RL. MIT Press 1994-1997 (Bradford Books).
v.1: Constraints and prospects.
v.2: Intersections between theory and experiment. (additional editors: Petsche T, Kearns M)
v.3: Selecting good models. (editors: Petsche T, Hanson SJ & Shavlik JW)
v.4: Making learning systems practical. (ed.: Greiner R)

Neal RM., Bayesian learning for neural networks. New York: Springer, 1996. (Lecture notes in statistics, v. 118), 183 pp.

Brooks, R. 1986. A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot. IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, RA-2 (1): 14-23.

Yoon, S.-Y., Blumberg, B. M. and Schneider, G. E. 2000. Motivation Driven Learning for Interactive Synthetic Characters. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Autonomous Agents. New York, NY.: ACM Press. Forthcoming.

Song-Yee Yoon, Robert C. Burke, Bruce M. Blumberg, Gerald E. Schneider. Interactive Training for Synthetic Characters (2000)
Proceedings AAAI/IAAI, pp. 249-254.

B. Blumberg (1996) Old tricks, new dogs: Ethology and interactive creatures. Ph.D. thesis in Media Arts and Sciences, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA.

B. Blumberg, P. Todd and P. Maes (1996) No bad dogs: Ethological lessons for learning. In: From Animals to Animats, Proc. Fourth Intenational Conf on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

B. Blumberg (1994) Action-selection in hamsterdam: Lessons from ethology. In: From Animals to Animats, Proc. Third International Conf on the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

C. Kline and B. Blumberg (1999) The art and science of synthetic character design. In: Proc. AISB 1999 Symposium on AI and Creativity in Entertainment and Visual Art, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Humphrys, Mark. "Action Selection in a Hypothetical House Robot: Using those RL Numbers." In Proceedings Proceedings of the First International ICSC Symposia on Intelligent Industrial Automation (IIA-96) and Soft Computing. Edited by Peter G. Anderson and Kevin Warwick. Reading, England, 1996, pp. 216-222.

———. "Action Selection Methods using Reinforcement Learning." In Proceedings from Animals to Animats 4: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Edited by Pattie Maes, Maja Mataric, Jean-Arcady Meyer, Jordan Pollack and Stewart W. Wilson. Massachusetts, USA, 1996, pp. 135-144.

Beaugrand, Jacques P. "Relative Importance of Initial Individual Differences, Victory and Defeat Experiences, and Assessment Accuracy During Hierarchy Formation: A Simulation Study." Behavioural Processes 41 (1997): 177-192.

Humphrys, Mark. "Towards Self-organising Action Selection." Technical Report, Technical Report no. 255, Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, 1995.

Prem, Erich. "Epistemic Autonomy in Models of Living Systems." In Proceedings Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. Edited by Phil Husbands and Inman Harvey. Brighton, Great Britain, 1997, pp. 2-9.

Oliphant, M. "Evolving Cooperation in the Non-iterated Prisoner's Dilemma: The Importance of Spatial Organization." In Proceedings Proceedings of the Fourth Artificial Life Workshop. Edited by R. Brooks and Maes. Boston, MA, 1998, pp. 349-352.

Beauty/Images of Women

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Human Ethology. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1989.

Lakoff, Robin Tolmach. Face Value. 1984. (RA 778.L24 1984)

Lesser, Wendy. His Other Half. 1991. (NX 652.W6 L4 1991)

Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women. 1987. (NX 652.W6 B36 1987)

Banner, Lois W. American Beauty. (HQ 1410.B36 1983)

Gladue, Brian A., and H. Jean Delany. "Gender Differences in Perception of Men and Women in Bars." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 16, 2 (June 1990): 378-391.

Cunningham, Michael R. "Measuring the Physical in Physical Attractiveness:..." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, 5 (1986): 925-935. (SJU Holdings)

Mealey, L. "Bulking Up: The Roles of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Attempts to Manipulate Physical Attractiveness." Journal of Sex Research 34, 2 (1997): 223-228. (LJM)

Mealey, L., R. Bridgstock, and G. Townsend. "Symmetry and Perceived Facial Attractiveness: A Monozygotic Co-twin Comparison." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology76 (1999): 157-165. (SJU)

PubMed abstract: Symmetry is a major correlate of physical attractiveness across species, including humans. Investigating the nature of this relationship has been difficult, however, for several reasons, including the facts that variance in symmetry is attributable to more than one source and is often correlated with other variables related to attractiveness. This study assessed the role of facial symmetry in relation to perceptions of facial attractiveness. Some of the natural covariates of symmetry were controlled for by comparing the symmetry and attractiveness differentials between monozygotic co-twins, who are genetically, but not developmentally, identical. The more symmetric twin of a pair was consistently rated as more attractive, and the magnitude of the difference between twins in perceived attractiveness was directly related to the magnitude of the difference in symmetry.

Art, Music and Dance

Hanna, Judith Lynne. To Dance is Human: A Theory of Nonverbal Communication. (GV1603 .H36)

Rentschler, I., B. Herzberger, and D. Epstein. Beauty and the Brain. 1988. (BH301.P45 B43 1988)

Dissanayake, Ellen. Homo Aestheticus: Where Art Comes From and Why. 1992. (BH39.D56 1992)

Robinson, Jenefer. Music & Meaning. (ML3845 .M96 1997)

Signs and Symbols

Sternberg, Martin L. A. American Sign Language Concise Dictionary. 1990. (HV2475.S77 1990).

Koch, Rudolf. The Book of Signs. Translated from the German by Vyvyan Holland. (The book contains all manner of symbols used from the earliest times to the Middle Ages by primitive peoples and early Christians, collected, drawn and explained by Rudolf Koch.) (AZ108 .K62 1955)

Liungman, Carl G. Dictionary of Symbols. 1938. (REFERENCE BL603 .L5413 1991)

Carr-Gomm, Sarah. The Dictionary of Symbols in Western Art. (REFERENCE N7740 .C29 1995)

Tresidder, Jack. Dictionary of Symbols: An Illustrated Guide to Traditional Images, Icons, and Emblems. (REFERENCE GR931 .T74 1998)

Samoyault, Tiphaine. Give Me a Sign!: What Pictograms Tell us Without Words. (JUVENILE P53.7 .S2613 1997)

Bruce-Mitford, Miranda. The Illustrated Book of Signs & Symbols. (REFERENCE AZ108 .B78 1996)

Elder, Charles D. The Political Uses of Symbols. (JA74 .E39 1983)

Biezais, Haralds. Symposium on Religious Symbols and Their Functions. Turku, Finland, 1978. (Religious symbols and their functions: based on papers read at the Symposium on Religious Symbols and Their Functions, held at Abo on the 28th-30th of August 1978.) (BL603 .S95 1978)

Smeets, Rene. Signs, Symbols & Ornament. (NK1520 .S613)


Schrank, Jeffrey. Deception Detection: An Educator's Guide to the Art of Insight.(HF5822 .S287)

Lewis, Michale, and Carolyn Saarni Lewis. Lying and Deception in Everyday Life. (BF637.D42 L49 1993)

Ekman, Paul. Telling Lies: An Analysis of Lies, Liars, and Lie Catchers. New York: Norton, c1985. (CSB BJ1421 .E36 1985 )

Persuasion: Advertising, Politics

Rosenfeld, Paul, et al. "Of Status and Suits: Personal Space Invasions in an Administrative Setting." Social Behavior and Personality 15, 1 (1987).

Capaldi, Nicholas. The Art of Deception. 1987. (BC175.C33 1971 Edition)

Karlins, and Abelson. Persuasion. 1970. (BF 637.P4 K27)

Dichter. Handbook of Consumer Motivation. 1964. (HF 5415.3 D5)

Abelson, and Hubert. Persuasion. 1959. (BF 637.P4)

Fotheringham, Wallace. Perspectives on Persuasion. 1966. (BF 637.P4 F6)

Robertson. Consumer Behavior. 1970. (HF 5415.3 R57)

Brembeck, Winston. Persuasion, A Means of Social Influence. 1976. (BF 637.P4 B65)

Thompson. The Process of Persuasion. 1975. (BF 637.P4 T46)

Hart, Roderick P. Verbal Style and the Presidency. 1984. (PN 4055.U53 P643)

Masters, Roger D. The Nature of Politics. 1989. (JA80.M37 1989)

Goodrum, and Dalrymple. Advertising in America. 1990. (HF5813.U6 G64 1990)

Rank, Hugh. The Pep Talk. 1984. (PE 1431.R36)